Main types of bicycles are road, mountain, commuter/comfort and fitness bikes. There are more specific types and other names for bike types within that, such as urban bikes (same as commuter bikes), cruiser bikes, dual-sport bikes, hybrid bikes, fixed-gear bikes, cyclo-cross bikes, adventure road bikes (aka  all-road bikes, gravel bikes), road bikes, touring bikes and specialty bikes, like BMX.
As you mentioned, it is surprising how often you can get multiple flat tires on while riding, particularly on longer sprints. The tip about bringing a patch kit in your bike repair kit can be incredibly helpful if you’ve already had one flat tire. I agree that all you listed seems like an awful lot to carry, but it’s always better to be safe than sorry, isn’t it?
I bought this book to supplement "Anybody's Bike Book" because I always like to get a second opinion. This book uses photos extensively rather than drawings as in the other book. They are well composed and quite helpful providing additional detailed information in a clear, conciseful manner. Information is provided in heirarchy format and geared from initial purchase to daily maintenance of my two wheeled friend. Good book!

Patch kit:   Patch kits are easy to use, light and compact, and if you get more than one flat on a ride (it happens more than you’d expect), it can save you when you’ve already used your spare tube.   Plus, on a rear wheel, patching a tube can be faster than replacing it, as you can often do this without removing the wheel at all.  Another upcoming post is going to show you how to patch a tube.

There are patches that don’t require vulcanizer—the infamous peel-and-stick. One brand, the Park Tool GP-2, has some genuinely enthusiastic endorsements, so we tested it. I applied Park Tool patches to four different tires, at three different psi levels (60, 90, and 120). Three of the four didn’t hold—two released within minutes. The fourth deflated overnight. I redid the test, but repeated a second time, they all leaked within a day.
Next, two-stage designs. There are two types of hand pump. HV (high-volume) pumps, ones that pump a lot of air but don’t have a lot of pressure, which are used for mountain bikes. The Lezyne Alloy Drive is a high-volume pump. Then there are HP (high-pressure) pumps, which pump a small amount of air but can inflate to very high pressures and are used on road bikes. Our top pick is a high-pressure pump.
The SGA Bike Share is open to all students with a valid UCF Card. There is no rental fee to rent a bicycle, lock, helmet, and light for one work day. Participants may rent and return our bikes from the following four locations: the Student Union, Recreation and Wellness Center, RWC @ Knights Plaza and Lake Claire Apartments. Use of our equipment is strictly on a first-come-first-served basis.

Nice, helpful, friendly. Central location. Good bikes (I had two over two days.) Bikes had a water bottle cage (some places don't do that!) Provided helmets if needed (I didn't) and a one-sided pannier containing a decently strong but not super-heavy cable lock and a patch kit. Only quibbles: 1) The owner helping me with getting my bikes seemed to 'drop me' for too long when someone else walked in. He should have said to them, after asking what they were in for, that 'I'll be with you as soon as I'm finished with this person.' So I had to wait a little longer than desired, but not bad. 2) On my second day, the pannier bag fell off and got lost after I stopped for lunch, which required locking up the bike somewhere, so I took the bag into restaurant and re-attached it using the two velcro straps on the rear rack. I've used many panniers before, thought I did it correctly. But apparently I did not. So I paid $55 (cost) to replace everything in bag and bag. In hindsight, I wished I'd put a bungee around bag straps to really secure it to bike. PROBABLY MY FAULT. 3) Bring a second lock to lock quick-release front wheel, as decently strong but not super-heavy cable lock isn't long enough for both wheels and frame.I had a second cable lock.
Friction gear systems are a lot simpler to adjust, because the movement of the derailer cable can be modulated as you ride, every time you change the gear- they require less cycle maintenance. Modern index shifting systems are a little more complicated because each ‘click’ must release the exact right amount of cable to allow the derailer to move the correct distance to move the chain from one gear to another. Setting up and adjusting a derailer is not difficult and requires only basic tools, but there is a methodical procedure to follow.
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