Pedals are important because the serve as the contact point between the rider and the bike’s transmission. Clip-less pedals systems come in a variety of designs favoured by individual manufacturers, but the mechanics of all styles are roughly the same. Tiny adjustments in the position of the show cleat – that snaps into position on the pedal – can make a big difference to the comfort and health of the rider.

Main types of bicycles are road, mountain, commuter/comfort and fitness bikes. There are more specific types and other names for bike types within that, such as urban bikes (same as commuter bikes), cruiser bikes, dual-sport bikes, hybrid bikes, fixed-gear bikes, cyclo-cross bikes, adventure road bikes (aka  all-road bikes, gravel bikes), road bikes, touring bikes and specialty bikes, like BMX.
Change and a $20 bill:   In case your cell phone’s battery dies, it’s nice to still be able to use a payphone if you need to.   Also, the $20 is a great thing to have in case you lose your wallet or have some other mishap.   I’d rather be able to sit in a coffee shop or fast food restaurant when it starts raining while I’m waiting for my friend or cab ride, and a hot cup of tea or coffee or the beverage of your choice and a snack makes it all the more pleasant.  Just try to remember, this is for emergencies, and if you use it, replace it ASAP!
Broadly speaking there are two major wheel sizes – 700c for road bikes and 26 inch off-road wheels. However there are a whole variety of older, less common wheel sizes and of course fold up bikes have much smaller wheels altogether. Repairing a puncture is not an emergency! It’s a basic procedure that every cyclist should be able to to perform, but doing it correctly involves more steps than many people realise. Wheel building is often seen as the most artful skill in bicycle maintenance, and separates the professionals from the amateurs but that doesn’t mean you should consider it out of reach. Truing a slightly misaligned wheel is a cycle maintenance job that almost any cyclist can perform.
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