Let me go ahead and get the bad stuff out of the way. First of all, this stand is NOT the same level of quality as something you would find in a bicycle shop being used for the shop's repairs. it's quite a bit more flimsy, and the grip likes to rotate if you don't get the bike's center of gravity just right. The tool tray is also made out of a rather cheap plastic that can break easily at the rim. That being said, this stand is perfect for home users and makes mundane tasks like fixing a flat or cleaning the chain much easier. It easily holds my Raleigh Merit 3, and I don't worry about the thing falling even if the grip tilts a bit. The stand significantly shortened the time I needed to change an inner tube on my bicycle, and made me less worried about damaging something on the bike by jury-rigging a stand out of whatever I had lying around.
First, I researched. I looked at Amazon’s top-rated products and their user reviews. Then I consulted Bicycling magazine, Gear Junkie, Bike Radar, Outside, and the occasional bit by Lennard Zinn via Velonews. I also found some worthwhile discussions at Bike Forums. Then I spoke with four experts, Ramona Marks, Scott Karoly, Cari Z, and Alison Tetrick, riders from all across the spectrum, who tour, repair, and race.
Main types of bicycles are road, mountain, commuter/comfort and fitness bikes. There are more specific types and other names for bike types within that, such as urban bikes (same as commuter bikes), cruiser bikes, dual-sport bikes, hybrid bikes, fixed-gear bikes, cyclo-cross bikes, adventure road bikes (aka all-road bikes, gravel bikes), road bikes, touring bikes and specialty bikes, like BMX.
As you mentioned, it is surprising how often you can get multiple flat tires on while riding, particularly on longer sprints. The tip about bringing a patch kit in your bike repair kit can be incredibly helpful if you’ve already had one flat tire. I agree that all you listed seems like an awful lot to carry, but it’s always better to be safe than sorry, isn’t it?
Pedals are important because the serve as the contact point between the rider and the bike’s transmission. Clip-less pedals systems come in a variety of designs favoured by individual manufacturers, but the mechanics of all styles are roughly the same. Tiny adjustments in the position of the show cleat – that snaps into position on the pedal – can make a big difference to the comfort and health of the rider.