Next, two-stage designs. There are two types of hand pump. HV (high-volume) pumps, ones that pump a lot of air but don’t have a lot of pressure, which are used for mountain bikes. The Lezyne Alloy Drive is a high-volume pump. Then there are HP (high-pressure) pumps, which pump a small amount of air but can inflate to very high pressures and are used on road bikes. Our top pick is a high-pressure pump.
Basic first aid supplies:  A few bandages of varying sizes.   6 Aspirin, or other OTC painkiller of choice.   A few alcohol pads in sealed foil packs, useful for cleaning grease off grease and grit off of the bike, and also cleaning cuts on yourself if you take a spill.  1 day supply of any prescription drugs you need to take regularly.   Wrap these up in tinfoil and tuck away.   It might just save your day.
Some years ago, I used to live on my bike. Riding around daily through any weather condition was bound to quickly wear down on the bike over time. I like some of the stuff that you have in your toolkit. I would say zip ties are actually really convenient, because when something came loose you could go ahead and use those to fasten them down to keep on moving ahead until you had enough time to fix it or get it checked at a bike repair shop.
Any bike that gets ridden seriously as transportation or on long rides needs at least a basic tool/emergency kit, and the knowledge to use it, unless the rider is always in a position to call a friend with a car or a cab when their bike needs a quick fix on the road.  If you never travel more than a few miles, this can be overkill, and calling a friend or a cab may be just the ticket,  but if you want to be more self reliant, this is something you should seriously consider.  This list may sound like an awful lot of stuff to carry, but really, it only weighs a few lbs and fits in a small, under-seat bag that comes off quickly so I don’t have to leave it with the bike if theft is a concern.  If you always carry a regular rack top bag, you can also just put all this in a small nylon bag and throw it in there, but I prefer an under-seat bag.

If you’re going to use the chain whip you just made, you’ll also need a way to get that cassette off. A lockring remover is a must-have; unless you use one of the shady removal methods I’ve seen on the internet—which I wouldn’t necessarily recommend unless you don’t care much about the condition of the wheel after you use them. I recommend Park Tool’s iterations here that cost about $6, but you’ll need to buy the specific one for your brand/type of cassette. (By the way, I’m assuming you already have an adjustable wrench laying around somewhere to use with this tool. If you don’t, well, you’ll need one of those too.)
Now you might be wondering: “I’m carrying a tube; why carry patches at all?” As insurance for the unforeseeable. Wirecutter senior editor Christine Ryan admits she didn’t use to pack them, but said, “I’ve regretted that decision when I’ve had a flat on a ride, used my spare tube, and then, half an hour later, had a second flat. Also, lots of people aren’t very good at figuring out—or don’t take the time to figure out—what caused their flat and remove the cause: thorn, eensy bit of glass, whatever. Then they promptly have a second flat, and everyone else laughs at them.”
There are two major types of headset- older, threaded headsets that have a quill that drops into the stem of the fork creating an interference connection, and newer threadless headsets that the stem is bolted and clamped on to. Flat handle bars are preferred by off road cyclists who can ride in a more upright postion whilst still having the controls at their fingertips, whereas drop handlebars offer more cycling positions and are favoured by road cyclists who typically spend more time in the saddle. The controls attached to the different styles of bar are operated and maintained in different ways.
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