Keychain style flashlight or headlamp, LED type, not incandescent:   The keychain style is tiny and lightweight, the headlamp style is a bit bulkier but easier to use.    You can get these for a couple of bucks or less at the local big box hardware store.  The LED ones are lighter, more durable and last considerably longer.   Very useful if you need to make a repair after dark!  I keep a keychain style one as a backup as I normally have a headlamp in my backpack.
Professional mountain biker Rebecca Rusch has been on plenty of long rides and experienced enough mechanical failures to know what makes a fully-stocked repair kit. One of her recent journeys, a 1,200-mile journey through the jungles of Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia along the Ho Chi Minh Trail required the utmost degree of preparedness — “We brought with us a lot of extra bearings, o-rings, stuff that you would never be able to find in Laos and Cambodia. Before I go out on these big adventures, I replace every bearing in my bike, my fork got a total rebuild — everything is in pristine condition,” says Rusch.
Over the years, I’ve come across plenty of articles that claim to tell you how to build up your cycling toolkit for cheap. Somehow the word “cheap” stops recurring in the long list of “essential” bike repair bits and pieces. The truth is, there is no real way to build a whole shop of tools all at once without plopping down a few hundred bucks. But in an attempt to show everyone that not all of us truly need a full complement of bike tools, I present the truest, most budget-conscious, and barest of bones options to you.
Yes, bicycle shops generally provide repair services. A typical list of offered services includes regular service/adjustment (including safety check; and  brake, drivetrain, and tire inspection); premium, and annual service, which is a more extensive tune-up. More specific repairs include drivetrain tune-up, brake system tune-up, flat tire fixes, brake repairs, cleaning and touching up the bike frame.
A plastic garbage bag, or $2 disposable poncho:  Just in case of an unexpected downpour or getting caught out after dark.   More than once, I’ve gone for a ride on a beautiful day with a perfect forecast, not taken a jacket and had the weather go south on me.  Being able to cover up can mean the difference between just mild discomfort or a freezing cold, shivering ride home!

Don’t rely on others. “People need to recognize that now there are different cassette sizes, so there are different chains depending on what gear you have. A lot of people are like, ‘Oh my friend is always prepared they always have the stuff, I’m not going to bring anything.’ All of the stuff now is very bike-specific, and you have to have your own package of stuff.”
Bike Radar gives the Pedro’s levers 4.55 out of five stars and claims they’re the “best out there.” (Can we pause to admire the extra five hundredths of a star the site chose to award it? Very specific.) Aaron Gulley, writing for Outside, states, “I can’t count the number of times I’ve snapped cheap plastic sticks, shredded my hand in the process, stomped around cursing in pain for 10 minutes, and then, insult to injury, been tool-less and unable to get my tire off anyway. That will never happen with Pedro’s.”

There are two major types of headset- older, threaded headsets that have a quill that drops into the stem of the fork creating an interference connection, and newer threadless headsets that the stem is bolted and clamped on to. Flat handle bars are preferred by off road cyclists who can ride in a more upright postion whilst still having the controls at their fingertips, whereas drop handlebars offer more cycling positions and are favoured by road cyclists who typically spend more time in the saddle. The controls attached to the different styles of bar are operated and maintained in different ways.

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